Like most Malware, Ransomware most common form are links on emails. When you open the link it will say it needs macros enabled to view properly, once this has been done it will do one of two things.
The first type will encrypt all the files including images, videos and documents so you cannot open or view them anymore. This will even encrypt external drives, then it will demand a ransom to unencrypt the files for you.
The second locks the screen so the device is no longer usable, again this then demands a ransom before they give you back control of your device. Most of the time this ransom will need to be paid in Bitcoin.
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